The traditional herbal medicine, Ge-Gen-Tang, inhibits pacemaker potentials by nitric oxide/cGMP dependent ATP-sensitive K(+) channels in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal from mouse small intestine.
Journal: 2016/March - Journal of Ethnopharmacology
ISSN: 1872-7573
Ge-Gen-Tang (GGT) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula composed of Puerariae radix (Pueraria lobata Ohwi), Ephedrae Herba (Ephedra sinica Stapf), Cinnamomi Ramulus (Cinnamomum cassia Blume), Paeoniae Radix (Paeonia lactiflora Pallas), Glycyrrhizae Radix preparata (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer), Zingiberis Rhizoma (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), and Zizyphi Fructus (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. inermis Rehder) and is widely used to ameoliorate the symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders related to diarrhea and intestinal mucosal immunity and for anti-cold, antipyretic and analgesic in Eastern Asia.
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells in the GI tract that generate rhythmic oscillations in membrane potentials known as slow waves. We investigated the effects of GGT on pacemaker potentials in cultured ICCs from the mouse small intestine, and sought to identify the receptors and the action mechanisms involved.
Enzymatic digestions were used to dissociate ICCs from mouse small intestine tissues. All experiments on ICCs were performed on within 12h after culture. A whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record potentials (current clamp) from cultured ICCs. Intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) increase was studied in cultured ICCs using fura-2AM. All of the experiments were performed at 30-32°C.
Under the current clamping mode, GGT decreased the amplitude and frequency of pacemaker potentials; however, these effects were blocked by intracellular GDPβS, a G-protein inhibitor, and glibenclamide, a specific ATP-sensitive K(+) channels blocker. Prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) and butoxamine (β2-adrenoceptor antagonist) did not block the GGT-induced effects, whereas atenolol (β1-adrenoceptor antagonist) blocked the GGT-induced effects. Also, yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) partially blocked the GGT-induced effects. Pretreatment with SQ-22536, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, did not block the GGT-induced effects, whereas pretreatment with ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, or L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, did. Additionally, [Ca(2+)]i analysis showed that GGT decreased [Ca(2+)]i.
These results suggest that GGT inhibits pacemaker potentials in ICCs in a G protein-, cGMP- and NO-dependent manner through stimulation of α2 and β1-adrenoceptors.
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