The aim of the study was to demonstrate competition between caffeine and a fixed valerian/hop extract combination (Ze91019) by the central adenosine mechanism. EEG was used to describe the action of caffeine on the central nervous system after oral administration (200 mg) in healthy volunteers. In addition to caffeine, the volunteers (16 in each group) received either placebo or verum (2 and 6 tablets containing the valerian/hop extract). The EEG responses were recorded every 30 min thereafter. The verum medication was capable of reducing (2 tablets) or inhibiting (6 tablets) the arousal induced by caffeine. This pharmacodynamic action was observed 60 minutes after oral administration, indicating not only competition between the antagonist caffeine and the partial agonist, i. e., the valerian/hop extract but also bio-availability of the compound(s) responsible for the agonistic action. In conclusion, the valerian/hop extract acts via a central adenosine mechanism which is possibly the reason for its sleep-inducing and -maintaining activity.