We have developed an algorithm that predicted 11,265 potentially polymorphic tandem repeats within transcribed sequences. We estimate that 22% (2,207/9,717) of the annotated clusters within UniGene contain at least one potentially polymorphic locus. Our predictions were tested by allelotyping a panel of approximately 30 individuals for 5% of these regions, confirming polymorphism for more than half the loci tested. Our study indicates that tandem-repeat polymorphisms in genes are more common than is generally believed. Approximately 8% of these loci are within coding sequences and, if polymorphic, would result in frameshifts. Our catalogue of putative polymorphic repeats within transcribed sequences comprises a large set of potentially phenotypic or disease-causing loci. In addition, from the anomalous character of the repetitive sequences within unannotated clusters, we also conclude that the UniGene cluster count substantially overestimates the number of genes in the human genome. We hypothesize that polymorphisms in repeated sequences occur with some baseline distribution, on the basis of repeat homogeneity, size, and sequence composition, and that deviations from that distribution are indicative of the nature of selection pressure at that locus. We find evidence of selective maintenance of the ability of some genes to respond very rapidly, perhaps even on intragenerational timescales, to fluctuating selective pressures.