Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease in Western nations and ranges in severity from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a genetic-environmental-metabolic stress-related disease of unclear pathogenesis. NAFLD is triggered by caloric overconsumption and physical inactivity, which lead to insulin resistance and oxidative stress. A growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Mitochondrial dysfunction not only promotes fat accumulation, but also leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, resulting in oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important modulator of antioxidant signaling that serves as a primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress. The pharmacological induction of Nrf2 ameliorates obesity-associated insulin resistance and NAFLD in a mouse model. Sulforaphane and its precursor glucoraphanin are derived from broccoli sprouts and are the most potent natural Nrf2 inducers-they may protect mitochondrial function, thus suppressing the development of NASH. In this review, we briefly describe the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NASH and the effects of glucoraphanin on its development.