Dyspepsia is defined as a chronic or recurrent pain centered in the upper abdomen. Dyspeptic symptoms have a high prevalence in the population and represent a common reason for patients to see a primary care physician. Therefore, dyspepsia displays a major health care burden and produces high socioeconomic costs. The etiology of dyspeptic symptoms is various and complex and has opened a wide spectrum of putative mechanisms. In a subset of patients dyspeptic symptoms are likely to originate from Helicobacter pylori infection. Population-based studies have demonstrated that H. pylori is detected more frequently in dyspeptic patients compared to controls. H. pylori eradication therapy gives modest but significant benefit in non-ulcer dyspepsia and leads to long-term symptom improvement. It also reduces the risk of developing peptic ulcer disease and other H. pylori-related gastric pathologies (i.e. atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer). The main therapeutic strategy for managing dyspepsia in patients under the age of 45 years is 'test and treat'. H. pylori eradication is recommended in patients with dyspepsia and no other gastroduodenal abnormalities than H. pylori induced gastritis. In patients presenting with alarm features a prompt upper endoscopy should be performed to exclude peptic ulcer disease, esophageal and gastric malignancies or other more rare upper gastrointestinal diseases.