Apigenin-induced cell cycle arrest is mediated by modulation of MAPK, PI3K-Akt, and loss of cyclin D1 associated retinoblastoma dephosphorylation in human prostate cancer cells.
Journal: 2007/August - Cell Cycle
ISSN: 1551-4005
Apigenin, a dietary plant-flavonoid has shown anti-proliferative and anticancer properties, however the molecular basis of this effect remains to be elucidated. We studied the molecular events of apigenin action in human prostate cancer cells. Treatment of LNCaP and PC-3 cells with apigenin causes G0-G1 phase arrest, decrease in total Rb protein and its phosphorylation at Ser780 and Ser807/811 in dose- and time-dependent fashion. Apigenin treatment caused increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and this sustained activation resulted in decreased ELK-1 phosphorylation and c-FOS expression thereby inhibiting cell survival. Use of kinase inhibitors induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, albeit at different levels, and did not contribute to cell cycle arrest in comparison to apigenin treatment. Despite activation of MAPK pathway, apigenin caused a significant decrease in cyclin D1 expression that occurred simultaneously with the loss of Rb phosphorylation and inhibition of cell cycle progression. The reduced expression of cyclin D1 protein correlated with decrease in expression and phosphorylation of p38 and PI3K-Akt, which are regulators of cyclin D1 protein. Interestingly, apigenin caused a marked reduction in cyclin D1, D2 and E and their regulatory partners CDK 2, 4 and 6, operative in G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle. This was accompanied by a loss of RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, suggesting the effectiveness of apigenin in inhibiting transcription of these proteins. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanism of apigenin in modulating various tyrosine kinases and perturbs cell cycle progression, suggesting its future development and use as anticancer agent in humans.
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