The alcoholic extracts of the aerial portion and fruits of Aglaia roxburghiana (W.& A.) Miq. var. beddomei and the triterpenes roxburghiadiol A and B isolated from this plant were investigated for their anti-inflammatory activity in rats by carrageenin induced rat paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma methods. They were also studied for their effect on mast cell degranulation induced by compound 48/80. Potent anti-inflammatory activity was observed for the extracts of the aerial portion and fruits of A. roxburghiana as well as for the triterpenes roxburghiadiol A and B. The mast cell degranulation induced by compound 48/80 was significantly reduced by A. roxburghiana extracts and the triterpenes. The triterpenes roxburghiadiol A and B may play a significant role in the observed anti-inflammatory effect of A. roxburghiana.