Aglaia odorata Lour. is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant possessing properties of improving blood circulation, and it is widely used in the treatment of dizziness, traumatic injuries and bruises.In this study, we are aimed to investigate the cerebral protection effect of the extracts from leaves of Aglaia odorata Lour. (ELA) and the potential mechanism in vivo and in vitro.The therapeutic effect of ELA on ischemic cerebral stroke was measured on a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. Protective effect of ELA on oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced PC12 cells was measured by MTT assay. The apoptotic cells were observed by Hoechst 33258 staining and acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining assay. Mitochondria were observed by Mitotracker staining assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was determined by JC-1 staining assay. Western blot was used to investigate the effects of ELA on apoptosis-related proteins.We showed that ELA was an effective neuroprotective agent. In vivo experiments, ELA exerted significant protective effect on MCAO model. TTC staining showed that ELA could reduce cerebral infarction area against MCAO insult. HE and Nissl's staining indicated that ELA could reverse the damage of cortex and hippocampus caused by MCAO. In vitro experiments, ELA showed significant protective effect on OGD/R-induced PC12 cells by reducing the number of apoptotic cells, increasing mitochondrial membrane potential, and reducing superoxide aggregation, further suppressing mitochondrial caspase-9/3 apoptosis pathway. Moreover, protective effect of ELA on mitochondrial function may be exerted by inhibiting p53/Puma signal pathway.Our results suggest that ELA exerts a marked neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia potentially via suppressing p53/Puma-mediated mitochondrial caspase-9/3 apoptosis pathway.